n,Yla‌;s W;amdokh wo fndfyda fihska l;nyg ,la‌ jk ud;Dldjls' Woeik wjÈ jQ fjf,a mgka rd;%S kskaog hk f;la‌ u ksjfiys" ld¾hd,fhys" lv idmamqj

Wodjk i;sfha Tfí ffojh

id.r mßir moaO;s wdY%s;j b;d mq¿,a ffcj úoHd;aul' mdrd§ihla ks¾udKh lsÍug m%Odk f,iu odhl jk ffcùh jHqyh jkafka fldr,amr h' Tjqka iuia: id.r NQñ m%udKfhka 0'1] la muK fjkalr .kq ,enqjo" id.r Ôù úfYaI 25] lg muK jdiia:dkhla f,i l%shd lrhs'

01' ÿre;= mqr mif,diajl fmdah ^ckjdß udih&

nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a m%:u ,xld.ukh uyshx.khg jevu lsÍu' tys§ iquk iuka foú÷kayg flaI Od;+ka jykafia,d ms<s.ekaùu' nqoaO;ajfhka kj uilg miq Wrefj, okõjg jevu lsÍu' tys§ Wrefj, ldYHm" .hd ldYHm yd k§ ldYhm iu. oyila cá,hka oukh lsÍu yd nqÿka irKg m;afldg meúÈ lrùu'

fldr,a ¥m;a o id.ßl ¥m;aj,g wh;a ¥m;a j¾.hls' fuu fldr,a ÿm;a is;a weo.kakd iq¿h' fuu ¥m;aj, úfYaI;ajh jkafka uqyqÿ uÜgñka wä 30 g jvd Wiska fkdmsysàuhs'uqyqfoys Ôj;ajk if;ls nqyqndjd' úh<s uqo%mam,ï f.ähla ;rug úYd, jk fuu l=vd nqyqndjka ¥m;a f.dvkxjk nj weiqfjd;a Tn mqÿuhg m;afõú' fï i;dg nqyqndjd hk ku ,eî we;af;a fndfyda mdo we;s ksidh'fuu i;=ka jdih lrkq ,nkafka fikaáf.%Ü wxYl 20 ) 30 la muK jk WKqiqï c,fhys h' YÍr j¾Okhg ysre t<sh fnfyúka n,mdk ksid óg¾ 60 g jvd .eUqre iys; ia:dkj, jdih lrkafk

fudavhdg kqjK ,nd.kak ´fk kï iqÿiq fmd;a lshjkak ´fk' ishÆ fmd;a lshjkak ´fka' kqU fmd;a lshjdmka' f;areï .kak neßkï y;amdrla lshjdmka' ta;a f;areï .kak neßkï fodf<dia mdrla lshjdmka' fmd;aj, .; hq;= foa ;sfhkjd' fmd;a lshkafka fndre mqyq foag fkfjhs'"

01' ÿre;= mqr mif,diajl fmdah ^ckjdß udih&

 

nqÿrcdKka jykafiaf.a m%:u ,xld.ukh uyshx.khg jevu lsÍu' tys§ iquk iuka foú÷kayg flaI Od;+ka jykafia,d ms<s.ekaùu' nqoaO;ajfhka kj uilg miq Wrefj, okõjg jevu lsÍu' tys§ Wrefj, ldYHm" .hd ldYHm yd k§ ldYhm iu. oyila cá,hka oukh lsÍu yd nqÿka irKg m;afldg meúÈ lrùu'

u,d,d hqiq*a idhs j¾;udk f,dalfha ;reKshka iy orejka w;r w;sYh ckm%sh ;rejla njg m;aù ;sfí' ta miq.shod m%ldYhg m;a lrk ,o fkdfn,a iïudk m%odfkda;aijfha fkdfn,a idu ;Hd.h i|yd jQ iu iïudkh wehg ysñùu;a iu`.h' ta wkqj tod fuod ;=r fkdfn,a iïudkhla ,o f,dj <dnd,;u mqoa.,hd f,i weh fï jk úg;a b;sydi .; ù ;sfí'

óg ishjilg muK fmr f,dalfha wmg ie;mqka oyia .Kkla ÿßka msysá rgl Wm; ,nd fjkia ld,jljdkqjl yd mßirhl yeÿkq jevqkq wd;¾ iS' la,dlaf.a <ud yd ;reK úfhka wo ojfia orejkag wdo¾Y .; yels o@

Tn okakjo wkaO whf.a fk;a mdoñka íf¾,a C%uh fidhd .;a Æù íf¾,a .ek@ Tyq wkaOfhl= jqfha Wm;ska fkdj wyïfnka jQ isÿùula ksid nj Tn okakjdo@ wo wms Tyqf.a wreu mqÿu <ud úhg <x ù n,uq'Æù Wmkafka 1809 ckjdß 04 Èk m‍%xYfha meßia k.rhg wdikak fldamajß ys § h'ihsuka íf¾,a kï jQ Tyqf.a mshdf.a /lshdj jQfha wYaj weÿï lÜg, iy wirejkaf.a we÷ï wdhs;a;ï i;aj iï Ndú;fhka iE§uhs' mshdf.ka fiajh ,nd.ekSug fndfyda ÿr wE; m<d;aj,ska meñfKk úúO mqoa.,hskaf.a úys¿ l;kaor weiSug;a w,sia lgqj Ndú;d lrñka mshd iï iEo, idok wdldrh n,d isàug;a l=vd Æù wdYd l<d' fï ksid Tyq ks;ru mshdf.a jevmf<a .ejiqkd'”

Y%S ,xldfõ m%:u rc;=ud - úch rcq
rc ùug fmr meúÈ ù isá rcq - Od;=fiak rc;=ud
fmdf,dkakakrefõ m%:u rcq - 1 úchndyq rc;=ud

m%!V ft;sydisl idOl ndyq,Hhlska iukaú; jQ Y%S ,xldj ;=< w;S; rdclShhkaf.a m‍%uqL;ajh u; f.dv kxjk ,o l,d ks¾udK iys; úydria:dkj,g ysñjkafka woaú;Sh ia:dkhls' fndfyda úg tjka l,d ks¾udK iys; ia:dk Èjhsfka iEu m‍%foaYhl u mdfya úisr ;snqK o ck;djf.a wjOdkh ta foig fhduq jkafka b;d w,am jYfhks' thg fya;= idOl f,i fndfyda úg bÈßm;a l< yelafla j;auka ;r.ldÍ iudch ;=< ft;sydisl;ajh hk ixl,amh flfrys olajk WodiSk wdl,amh hs'

1932 jk úg ñß`.q Èh" Wkaudo Ñ;%d" frdays” hk kjl;d fm< rpkd l< ud¾áka úl%uisxy YQÍka úfYaIfhkau kjl;d ,sùug jeä leue;a;la oelaùh' ,xld idys;Hh muKla fkdj úYaj idysf;Hha o wur”h jQ woaú;Sh ia:dkhla ysñlr.;a ;=kawEÿre kjl;d fmf<a m<uq .%ka:h jQ “.ïfmr<sh“ úl%uisxy w;ska rpkd jQfha 1942 § h'

ñÿf,a je,su; cHdñ;sl rEm w¢ñka ld¾h nyq, ù isák y;ayeúßÈ msßñ <ufhla Tyq Tyqf.a tu .Ks; lS‍%vdjg fl;rï ;Èka wdl¾Ykh ù isáhdo lsjfyd;a Tyqg wjg mßirh ms<sn|jo wu;l ù .shd' yÈisfhau t;ekg Tyqf.a mshd meñK “ksIaM, jevj, fhfokafka ke;sj bkak” hehs mjiñka Tyqg fodia ke.=jd' Tyq msßñ <uhd <`. ;snqKq .Ks;h fmd;;a Wÿrd .;a;d'

idudkHfhka wm okakd wdldrhg kï hula ñfok wjia:djg m;a jQ úg th ixfldapkh fõ' tfy;a c,fha yeisÍu ta wdldr fkdfõ' fuh jgyd .ekSug myiq r;ajk úg hï foaj,a m‍%idrKh jkafka ukaoehs f;areï .ekSfuks' hula r;ajkak" r;ajkak tys iukaú; jk wxYq jeä jeäfhka N‍%uKh fõ' jeäfhka N‍%uKh jk úg Bg jeäfhka wjldYhla wjYH fõ' tu fya;=fjka th m‍%idrKh fõ' iS;, fjoa§ fuys wksla me;a; isÿfõ' N‍%uKh wvqjk w;r Bg wjYH wjldYh ta wkqj wvqfõ'

jhU m<d; mqIamh- weÜfgßhd

 

W;=re m<d;a mqIamh - úIaKq C%dka;s

 

inr.uq m<d;a mqIamh -iqÿ fkÆï

17 jeks ishjfia .ï rgj,a fidhñka wd.sh mD;=.Sis .fõIlhska w;ßka msßilg n‍%iS,fha wÆ;a k.rhla yuqjqKd' th wÆ;a k.rhla muKla fkdfõ' Tjqkag th yuqjqfKa" bkaÈhdkq jyÆka iy r;arka o iu.hs'

cmdkfha Tlskdjd ¥m;a jdiSyq iEu cQks 23 jkodlu Tlskdjd igfkka ñh.sh mqoa.,hska isys lrkq jia Tlskdjd hqO ieureï Èkh iur;s' tÈk tu ¥mf;a ksjdvq Èkhla f,i .efka' fuu Èkh cmdkh mqrd ieufrkakla fkdjk w;r Tlskdjd m%foaYhgu wdfõksl ieureï Èkhls'

yn,a i;aj Whfka wm yqjd olajk ukaodls‚h fidhd .kq ,enqfõ weußldkq ;drld úoHd{ wd;¾ fyda.ah ^Arthur Hoag&' ta 1950 §h' tys w,xldr iuñ;sh ie,ls,a,g .kakd úg" M82 ukaodls‚hg iïnkaê; wka;ÍlaI m‍%pKav;ajfhys m‍%;sM,hlg jvd fjk;a .e,elaishla yd wka;¾ ls‍%hdjl m‍%;sM,hla ùfï yelshdj b;d wvqh' mshú weiska oelsh yels iSudjg jvd fyda.af.a jia;=j 10"000 .=Khla ÿn,hs' tys yryg pdm ;;a;amr 45la muK fõ' tys mer‚ ;drld iys; ly yrh yryg wdf<dal j¾I 17"000la muK fõ' tfukau" tys ;reK ;drldj, ks,a ljfhys wNHka;r iy ndysr úIalïN ms<sfj<ska wf<dal j¾I 75"000la iy 120"000ls' yrh iy ljh w;r ukaodls‚ wjldYh wjYHfhkau ysia jdf.a fmkS hhs'

01' f,dalfha i¾mhska oIaG lsßï j,g jvd jeä m%udKhla nUreka" foUreka"ñ ueiaika oIaG lsßu ksid ñh hhs'

uDÿ ߧ meye;s laIdÍh f,dayhls' uDÿ nj ksidu ,s;shï lene,a,la msyshlska jqj lmkakg mq¿jk' iïu; ;;ajhkays§ ieye,a¨‍u iy >k;ajfhka wvqu f,dayhhs' ,s;shï b;du;a m%;sl%shdldÍh'